Student Teachers Attitudes Towards Inclusion in Pakistan
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Inclusive, practices, teacher education, student teachers, efficacy, General, Special


The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of student teachers towards inclusion. A sample of 23 male and 117 female student teachers were selected from a public sector university of Lahore district. The ultimate aim of the study was to determine the attitudes of student teachers enrolled in general and special teacher education programs. The sample was distributed across general teacher education and special teacher education programs; namely the four courses of B. Ed General, B. Ed Special, M. Ed General and M. Ed Special. Student teachers’ responses were obtained on Attitudes towards Inclusion Scale; a five-point Likert scale for the six factors of inclusive practices, inclusive concept, inclusive instruction, inclusive education, inclusive classroom management and inclusive teaching efficacy. ANOVA and t-test were used to interpret the results of the study. Results indicated only one gender difference; that female student teachers held significantly more inclusive concepts than males. Students enrolled in M. Ed special program showed significantly more positive attitudes towards inclusive practices and inclusive instruction. Regarding the confidence level to teach children with disabilities, students with high level of confidence showed higher ratings to inclusive practices and inclusive concept. Students with prior experience to teach children with disabilities showed more positive attitudes towards inclusive practices and inclusive concept. This research study recommends policy makers and teacher educators to reform the teacher education program by incorporating inclusive education as a compulsory subject in general teacher education programs to develop positive attitudes towards inclusion.

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