Gender Inequity at Workplace in Pakistani Higher Education Institutions
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Women, inequality, higher education, workplace, professional


Gender inequality amongst a sample of higher education faculty in Pakistan shows that just over one half work in institutions where females enjoy full gender equality. A three element model of female inequality has been tested by a questionnaire survey of 180 faculty staff to provide reliable and valid measures of the five aspects of the working environment of decision making, professional development, and utilization of resources, academic affairs and job satisfaction. Data was collected from ten public and private universities of Lahore through random sampling technique. Results indicated that only in decision making, do males dominate. This supports the hypothesis of real movement in Pakistani higher education in the direction intended by the adoption of national equality policies. Cluster analysis distinguishes between the majority of Equality Positivists, who see no discrimination, and four types of Gender Concerned, who react to discrimination differently in terms of the socio-cultural norms of a conservative, patriarchal society. The cluster types have been validated by interviewing a representative sequential sample of faculty. By locating responses within the three elements of the inequality model, validation is also provided for the model itself.

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